Sultan Mahmood on his Way to the Mosque
A RESIDENCE OF SIXTEEN
TURKISH CAPITAL & PROVINCES
WITH AN ACCOUNT OF THE
OF THE NAVAL
& OF THE RESOURCES OF
THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
TO WHICH IS ADDED AN
CONTAINING REMARKS AND OBSERVATIONS
TO THE AUTUMN OF 1829
IN TWO VOLUMES
CHARLES MAC FARLANE
LONDON: Second Edition 1829
Publisher/Year: LONDON, Saunders & Otley, Second Edition 1829. Binding: Original Cloth Hardcover, 21.5x14cm. Pages: Vol 1: xxviii+ 517, Vol2: viii+491. Illustrations: 2 Colour Frontispieces, 1Large folded illustration view of Constantinople( 40x21cm), and 1 other double page illus.
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Charles MacFarlane (1799-1858)
Charles Macfarlane, historian and traveller, was born on 18 December 1799, probably in the Scottish highlands, the son of Robert Macfarlane and his wife, the daughter of John Howard and the widow of a major called Harris. From January 1816 until May 1827 Macfarlane lived in Naples; travelling throughout Italy, he became fluent in Italian and well read in Italian literature. In 1827 he travelled to Turkey and spent sixteen months in Constantinople and the surrounding provinces. On returning to Britain in February 1829 he published his first book, Constantinople in 1828. Both a travelogue and a recent history of Turkey, this extensive work was enlivened by occasional lively descriptions of everyday events, but was imbued with Macfarlane's rampant racial prejudices against Armenians, Jews, and (to a lesser degree) Turks, which were only moderated by his obvious susceptibility to all varieties of Eastern women.
On settling in London—after a brief spell in Brighton recovering from malaria—Macfarlane earned a living by literary hack work. He must have married soon after his arrival in Britain, as his eldest son was born in July 1832; the couple had two sons and three daughters in total. Macfarlane was employed for many years on the staff of the publisher Charles Knight, and became a minor figure in the London literary world, acquainted with celebrities including Hartley Coleridge, the Wordsworths, Thomas De Quincey, Leigh Hunt, John Murray, James Mackintosh, Thomas Hood, and Anna Jameson. He had a talent for company: J. R. Planché considered him ‘a most amusing companion and a warm friend’, and Knight described him (more guardedly) as ‘a most agreeable companion and an affectionate though not a safe friend’. His residence near London, at Barnet, was brought to an end by a visit to Italy and Turkey in 1846, after which he moved to Canterbury.
A breach with Knight ensued in the early 1850s, probably on the grounds of their contrasting political views. Macfarlane was a diehard tory: Knight commented in his own autobiography that his contribution to The Pictorial History, while showing ‘considerable powers of narration’, was ‘essentially … partizan’. Macfarlane, meanwhile, felt that the publisher had fallen under the liberal influence of Douglas Jerrold, Charles Dickens, and most importantly, Harriet Martineau, whom he vituperated as an ‘ill-favoured, dogmatizing, masculine spinster’. The sheer violence of his attack on Martineau, in his Reminiscences (written in the mid-1850s), seems to have been fuelled by his disappointment over The History of the Thirty Years' Peace, a work for which he thought he should have been commissioned but which Knight invited Martineau to write. This—and Knight's financial speculations—were blamed by Macfarlane for his poverty in the 1850s: in June 1857 he was admitted as a poor brother to Charterhouse, London, where he died on 9 December 1858
ORIGINAL 1829 SECOND EDITION
VERY IMPORTANT WORK on
ARMENIANS JEWS TURKS
With Colour Frontispieces
from over 180 Years Ago
THE success of the former edition of this work, which has been beyond my hopes, has tended to confirm me in an opinion I have long entertained, that the traveller who shall give a faithful, unexaggerated record of what he has seen, or heard on good authority, while he fairly and simply represents impressions as they were made on his own mind, can hardly fail of countenance.
The circumstances of the moment have been all in my favour ; but I may indulge the hope, that even after the present intense interest with which all turn their eyes to the East has subsided, my sketches will remain as simple and (as far as they go) correct delineations of regions that can never lose their charms, and of races of human beings so imperfectly known, that every item regarding them may be considered of some value. It is certain, at the same time, that the conditions of Russia and of Turkey are such, as to render a renewal of the scenes we have just witnessed, inevitable. All that the diplomacy of Europe can do is to delay the evil hour ; and it is predicted by those best acquainted with the difficult matter, that no arrangement between the two countries will continue undisturbed even for two years. I spared no pains to obtain information on the real state of the Ottoman empire ; and in my Appendix to the present edition, I have extended on several subjects, and brought down my details almost to the present day. I have insisted on the propriety of our being correctly informed of the weakness of Turkey, and on the folly of letting our affections or our antipathies mislead us into a false idea of strength. For the rest of my politics or speculations, I offer them not as confident or arrogant dicta, but as the surmises (perhaps the dreams) of one who feels warmly for the advancement of his fellow-creatures in general, and for the honour and prosperity of his own country.
I have entered at some length, in the course of my additional remarks, on the subject of the Greeks, and have advocated, feebly, but earnestly and sincerely, a plan for the mental improvement of that interesting people. And here I dare assume a tone of greater confidence, and recommend what I propose to the consideration of all (independent of parties in politics, or sects in religion) who may possess the means of being charitable, and of exercising a beneficial influence on the fate of a nation, whose ancient name cannot be mentioned without suggesting the idea of all that was beautiful in letters and in art, and glorious in heroism.
The views we take of our own interest in relation to other countries, are subject to great change—the politics of to-day, of to-morrow may not be the morrow ; but the feelings and motives which enter into this project of civilization and moral improvement, are sacred, enduring and invariable ; and if the politician may have to mourn over many a defeated, deep-laid calculation, the philanthropist can never number among his regrets, his exertions in the cause of humanity.
London, October 1st, 1829.
From Preface ...
WHEN recording his observations on a country like Turkey, and on a people still so imperfectly known as the Turks, and when submitting those observations to public attention, a traveller may be exempted from the usual excuses (of modesty or affectation) deemed necessary to precede or accompany the descriptions of more familiar regions, whose inhabitants and institutions differ comparatively little from our own, and are every day brought before our eyes in the progress of public affairs, or in the familiar intercourse of society.
It will be seen that the disturbed state of public affairs, and bad health, prevented me from extending my excursions as I had proposed; but if my range of travel was not a wide one, I at least saw what I visited coolly and deliberately, and in this I differ from the generality of tourists, who pass so hurriedly from place to place, that they have no time for mature examination, and the result is a succession of pictures, weak, indistinct, and confused. The rather singular circumstance of there being only three Englishmen resident at Constantinople during my stay, in depriving me of the pleasure of the society of my countrymen, threw me on what resources I could find among the natives of the place. The absence of all amusements necessitated application, and many solitary hours were occupied by noting on paper what I had heard in conversation, and seen in the day's excursion.
In making out my own cause, I have a right to assume my advantages ; whatever may be the value of my observations, they are the latest made in Turkey, (that are likely to meet the public eye,) I believe, by two or three years ; and they will assist an estimation of the real state of the Ottoman empire, as I left it, in October 1828.
I cannot soothe myself with the belief that the personal circumstances of an author can have, or even ought to have, any thing to do with the success of his book, or the decision of his readers; but the fact that the following volume has been written under the unfavourable influences of almost uninterrupted ill health, may soften the severity of criticism, and account for my omitting many interesting details.
The countenance of a public, whom it is customary to call intelligent and kind, (though the prevalence of the former quality may be obnoxious to the latter,) and a return of better health, may embolden me again to call attention to the fruits of my wanderings ; in the meantime, with the ordinary mixture of hope and fear, I submit the present volume to the dread fiat, reserving to myself the good old Italian consolation, that if it utterly fail and die, it will only go nel numero de' piu.
London, June 10th, 1829.
Costume of New Troops
APPROACH to Smyrna from the Archipelago—Scio and Ispara—Present State of Ispara—Story of Canaris, the Ispatiot Captain—Gulph of Smyrna—View of Smyrna and its Neighbourhood—First Impression of the Town and Inhabitants—Beauty of the Smyrna Ladies—Their general Use of Cosmetics — The English Burying Ground and Hospital—Les Jardins, Stagnant Ditches, Malaria—Fevers, and general Insalubrity of Smyrna—Curious Order for carrying Lanterns in the Streets by Night—Anecdote.
Tranquillity of Smyrna—Character of the Pasha—Historical Sketch of the Greek Massacres—Execution of Italian Sailors by the Turkish Government—Charity of the English Residents to the suffering Greeks—Anecdote of M. David, the French Consul—Easy Suppression of the Janissaries at Smyrna .
New Troops—Bazaars of Smyrna—Soldiers exercising—Bad Barracks—Extreme Civility of the Turks—Large new Barracks erecting for the regular Troops_VTant of instructed non-commissioned Officers and Subalterns—Uniform of the new Troops—Incorrect Idea as to the Number of European Officers in Sultan Mahmood's Service—Turkish Officers formed under Sultan Selim—Field-days at Smyrna—Turkish Music—New System of Tactics criticised by an old Turk—General ugliness of the Tacticoes.
Commerce of Smyrna—Imports and Exports—Opium—Large Quantities purchased by the Americans—Curious Turkish Laws respecting Contracts and Payments of Debt—European or Consular Courts of Law—The Greek, Armenian, and Turkish Traders—Story of a Jew at Smyrna—English, French, and other commercial Establishments—Enmity of the Imperialists, or Austrians, to the Greeks—English Levant Company.
Society of Smyrna among the Franks—Curious Customs—Want of Intellectual Cultivation—The Frank Ladies—General mild Character of the Levantines—Morals and Religion—The Abbé Janson at Smyrna—Low Order of Franks—Spaniards, Provençals, Italians, &c.—The TurksKatib-Oglu and Suleiman Aga—The Greeks of Smyrna--State of Education among the Greeks—The Armenians of Smyrna—Their differences in Religion—The Jews.
Villages near Smyrna—Party-divisions among the Smyrniotes —Scene at Boodjâ—Attack of the Samiotes—Fig Trade at Smyrna—Ball given by Lord Prudhoe—Departure for Chesmé—Curious Annoyance.
Arrival at Chesmé—Raisin Trade of that Place—Description of the Town—Greek Church and Greeks of ChesméDon Giovanni, the Sciote—Combat in the Straits of Scio, between a Greek Mistico and two Turkish SaccolevasBody of the Greek Captain—Liberation of a Sciote Slave —The beautiful Wife of Chesmé—The Muezzinn and the Ezann, or call to Prayers from the Minarets—Turkish Ablutions, &c.
Scio—Reception by the Turks—The Consul—Turkish Industry —The ruins of the Town—The Greek College—Distinguished Professors—Effects of even partial Education on the Greeks —Condition of the Greeks—Anecdotes—Former State of Scio contrasted with the present—Levant Vice-ConsulsGreek Captain and Ship—The Pasha—The Castle—The Country—Consul's Cassino—The School of Homer.
Chesmé—Departure of the Jasper—Plan of a Journey frustrated—Alarms—March of Tacticoes—The Scio Flotilla Scenes—A Tartar—Turks' Idea of Lord Cochrane—Country about Chesmé—Habits and Professions of the Turks—Their extraordinary Honesty—Villages in the Neighbourhood of Chesmé — The Panagea —Beauty of the Women —AyaParaskevis—A.11acchchitta—Its Ports—The Samiotes—Agha of Allacchchitta, and a Greek Mason—Beauty and Costume of my Hostess—Vice of Drinking among the Greeks of Asia Minor—Extraordinary Goats—Jackals.
Departure from Chesmé—My Turkish Guard—Mineral Waters—Erythree—View from its Acropolis—Adventures on the Road—Turkish Village of Seradem—Night spent in the House of a Turk—His Wife, &c.—Musical Voices of the Turkish Women—Journey from Seradem to Vourlà—Clazomene—Cavalcade going to a Turkish Marriage—Almas, or Dancing Girls—Vourlà—From Vourlà to Smyrna.
News of the Battle of Navarino at Smyrna—Alarm produced thereby—Tranquillity of the Turks—Russian Pilgrims at Smyrna—Feelings of the Greeks—Anecdotes of the Battle ofNavarino—Hadji Bey, the chief of the Turkish Police—The English and French Ambassadors at Vourlà—The Smyrna Newspaper— General Church—Colonel Fabvier — Parties and Gaieties at Smyrna, &c.— Good Provisions —Wild Swans, &c.
Journey from Smyrna to Pergamus—Mode of TravellingMenimenn—The Hermus—Storks—Ramazann, or Turkish Fast—Night past in a Turkish Coffee-house at MenimennGuzel-Hissar—Tragical Story—Turkish Guards—Plain of the Caicus—Turkish Dandy of Constantinople—Passage of the Caicus—Pergamus—The A gha — An Italian Quackdoctor—The celebrated Pergamene Vase—The Tumuli, &c. —Gay Nights of the Ramazann—Scene at the Agha'sCarasman-Oglu—Greek Society of Pergamus—The Storks on the Ruins of Agios Theologos, &c.
Departure from Pergamus—Soma—Turkish School—Turkish Jews—Scenery — Fair at Kirkagatch — Greek College — Ayakeui—Female Captive—Magnesia—Turkish KhansCamels—Turkish Tale-Tellers—Mosques—Turkish College —Medical Pretenders— Grotesque Exhibitions— Coursing in Turkey—Turkish Mansion—Population of Magnesia—Religious Enthusiasm—Mosques of Magnesia.
Journey from Magnesia to Sardes—Road to the Foot of Mount Sipylus—Colossal Statue of Cybele—Grand Eastern Termination of Mount Sipylus—Plain and Rivers near CasabarArrival and Lodging at Casahar—Curious Supper—A Slave—Fire at the Khan—Plain of the Hermus—Turks Coursing—Tumuli and Villages near the Road—March of a Tribe of Turcomans—Ruins of the ancient City of Sardes—Accosted by two Dervishes—The Temple of Cybele—The Acropolis Alarming Incident—View from the Acropolis—Land Tortoise—Homeric Supper—Night spent in a .Tent with the Turcomans.
Excursion from Sardes to the Gygean Lake and the Lydian Tumuli—Fording of the Hennus—Long flat Mound—The Lake—The Tomb of King Alyattes, &c.—Herodotus and the Lydian Ladies, &c.—Journey from the Lake back to the Town of Casabar—Incidents at the Khan and Bazaars of Casabar— Drunken Fray of some Turks—Another Dervish—Ride from Casabar to the Vale of Nymphi —A murdered Turk in a Ditch—Beauty of the Vale of Nymphi—Land Tortoises—The Agha—Depredations of the Samiotes—Town of Nymphi—Dispute with the SuridjiGreek Hospitality—A Fountain—Colossal Statue at Carabelé—Turkish Sepulture—Black Turbans worn by the Greeks of Asia Minor—Ideas of their numerical superiority over the Nations of Europe entertained by the Turks—Fruit Trees at Nymphi—Journey from Nymphi to Smyrna—Narlikeui — Camel Fight—Meles—Smyrna.
Departure from Smyrna for Constantinople—Turkish Governor of the Sangiac Castle—Island of Lesbos, or Mitylene—Ruins of Assos—Cape Babà, and the Troad—Island of TenedosVisit to the Bim-bashi--View at Sunset—Night Scene on the coast of Troy—Turkish Encampment—Passage of the Dardanelles—Gallipoli—An Opium Eater—English SteamBoat—Shores of the Sea of Marmora—Arrival at Constantinople—Melancholy Appearance of Pera and Galata—Tranquillity—Promenades of Pera—The grand Signior going to Mosque—The Romantic Suburb of Eyoob—Kiat-hane`Catholic Armenians—Turkish Frolics—Ladies, &c.
Landing at Constantinople—Depopulated aspect of Galata and Pera—Armenian Catholics exiled—Their Houses sold—Appearance of the Rayaks and Franks—Promenade of the Grand Champ des Morts above Pera—Friday, the Grand Signior going to Mosque—Subjects allowed to present Petitions—Fine approach of the Sultan from Beshik-tash Serai to Eyoob by water—Sultan's change of Costume—His person and appearance—Troops, or the Tacticoes—The Band of the Imperial Guard playing Rossini's Music
Netherland Ambassador—Achmet-Papooshji—Low spirit of the Turks—March of Troops for the Russian Campaign—Sultan Mahmood—Curious Anecdotes—The Basis of Victory; a Turkish Treatise — Greek Bastinadoed—Turkish Fanaticism—Melancholy Aspect of the Interior of Constantinople—Views—Suppression of Coffee-houses—StoryTellers, &c.
State of the Public Mind at Constantinople on the commencement of the Russian Campaign—Letters of the Porte inviting the Ambassadors of England and France to return—Deposition of the Sheik-Islam or Mufti—Prisoners of War, and Ears—The Hatti-Sheriff—Greeks ordered to pray for the success of the Sultan—Greeks ordered to suppress their favourite Christian Name of Constantine—Solitary ride in the wild, uncultivated Neighbourhood of Constantinople—Ennui of Pera, with a glimpse of its Society—Sultan Mahmood's fine new Barracks at Daut-Pasha, &c.—Superior new Barracks at Scutari, &c.—Barracks at Levend-Chifllick—The Seymens and Janissaries — The Oulemas — Curious rencounter with the Sultan.
Brief Sketch of the History of the present Sultan Mahmood II, Sultans Selim and Mustapha—Sketches of the Three Revolutions of Constantinople in 1807-8—Character of Mustapha-Bairactar — Chelibi-Effendi — Halet-Effendi, and his Politics—Long-prepared Plans for the Suppression of the Janissaries—Abrogation of the Rights of the Ayans, &c.--Destruction of Robbers—Uninterrupted Successes of Mahmood—His Triumph over the Wahhabees—Effects of the Russian War favourable to him—Revolt of the Janissaries —Their History and Overthrow—Mahmood's Treachery—Death of Halet Effendi—His Character—New Regulations —Rights of Property—Reforms in Courts of Justice—Armenian Intrigues—Privileges of the Caliphs and OulemasReigning Dynasty—Mahmood's Domestic Character.
Sultan's New Troops—The Imperial Guard—A Turkish idea of Dress—Exercising, &c.—Number of Regular Troops in the Turkish Empire at the beginning of the Campaign of 1828—Russian Policy—The New Bands—Effect of hearing an old English Air played by the Band of the Sultan's Guards —Thoughts on Music, and the character of the Turks—Regular Cavalry of the Imperial Guard—Calosso, the Italian instructing Officer, and favourite of Sultan Mahmood —Anecdote of the Sultan—Uniforms, &c. &c.
A Foreign Minister's Audience of the Grand Vizir—Strange Scene at the House of a Perote diplomate—Mode of proceeding to the Porte — An angry Drogoman — Sultan's Guards—Reception by the Vizir—Distribution of Pelisses, &c.—Character of Mehemet, Grand Vizir--ReflectionsBaron Strogonoff, the Russian Ambassador—Eve of the Courbann Bairam, &c.—Sultan's magnificent Procession ut the Courbann-Bairam from the Serraglio—The Seraskier Ursef-Pasha, &c. &c.
Turkish Navy—Capitan Pasha at Buyukderè—Turkish Seamen—The English Steam-Boat—An imaginary Exploit—The Fortifications of the Bosphorus, from the Boghas to the Golden Horn—State of Defence of Constantinople at the time of Admiral Duckworth's Expedition—Nature of the Country between the Black Sea and the Forts on the Bosphorus—Anecdotes of the Capitan-Pasha, the Defender of Varna—Asiatic Cavaliers—General peaceful Conduct of the Troops on their March—Fortifications hastily thrown up in the Neighbourhood of Constantinople—Departure of the Grand Vizir—Proceedings of the Caimacan—Egress of the Sultan with the Sangiac-Sheriff Encampment of Daut-Pasha—Improvement in Martial Spirit—The Prison of the Bagnio— Russian Prisoners, &c.
Scenery—View of Constantinople—The Gallery of Galata Tower—Views of Constantinople compared with those of Naples—A bright Remark—Pera Society—The Drogomaneri—Armenians—Anecdotes—The Turks of the Capital—The Greeks—Project for the Improvement of the Greek People—Greek Literature, &c.—Illness and private Affairs--Climate of Constantinople—A Persian Gentleman — Departure from Constantinople, and return to England.
Sultan Mahmood on his Way to the Mosque
Costume of New Troops
View of Constantinople from the Hills of behind Scutari
View of Constantinople
from the Hills of behind Scutari
Half-leather binding with corners and edges rubbed exposing boards, library book plates and stamps, otherwise set complete and in very good condition.